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Volvo Truck Grease/Lubrication Chart

Apr 22, 2018 8:32:21 AM

Don't miss a grease fitting on your next grease job. We've published this lubrication chart to show you the grease fittings on your Volvo Truck. Please note, trucks with bodies and specialized equipment may have additional grease and lubrication points.

Make sure that grease fittings are cleaned off before filling grease. Dirt on the fitting that is not cleaned off is pushed into the part with the new grease. Always fill grease to the point where old grease and contaminants are forced out from the part and only new grease comes out. If grease cannot be filled so old grease is forced out or if new grease exits without pushing old grease out, note this on the form for repair. If a fitting does not accept lubrication due to damage or internal stoppage, replace with a new fitting.

Do not heat part for better grease application where rubber or plastic parts are involved.

Remove excess grease from fittings, spring shackles, and other surfaces.

Volvo Truck Lubrication/Grease Chart

The numbers in the lubrication chart correspond with the numbered notes on the next pages. Read these notes before selecting a lubricant.


Grease Grease
Hub Oil Hub Oil
Engine Oil Engine Oil
Hydraulic Oil Hydraulic Oil
Steering Fluid Steering Fluid
Coolant Coolant
Automatic Transmission Fluid Automatic Transmission Fluid
Manual Transmission Fluid Manual Transmission Fluid
Rear Axle Oil Rear Axle Oil
Brake Fluid Brake Fluid
Windshield Washer Fluid Windshield Washer Fluid
Lubricate Lubricate
*Dump Body Oil Reservoir Fluid Dump Body Oil Reservoir Level
*For Dump Trucks only


Lubrication Chart Notes


  • 1. Spring hanger: Use a lithium based grease with specification API NLGI Number 2. When lubricating the left and right sides of the front springs, lift the axle off of the floor, suspend the frame with axle stands and lower the axle. The spring bushings are now in the position where grease can be added to the contact surfaces.

    Note: The rock guard will have to be removed (if equipped).

    Note: Always grease a VOLVO front axle with the wheels on the ground.

    Note: To grease non-VOLVO axles, they are typically greased with the wheels on the ground. Consult with the axle manufacturer for the latest recommendation.

  • 2. Slack adjuster: Do not grease till 1st scheduled maintenance interval.

    Note: See manufacturers specifications for specific grease. Adjust according to the specific slack adjuster manufacturing specifications.

    Brake cam Use a lithium based grease with EP additives to specification API NLGI Number 2.

    Note: If the brake cam seal does not purge, make sure the inner seal does not purge into the brake drum and onto the brake linings.

  • 3. Steering gear: Use a lithium based grease with specification API NLGI Number 2. Only use a hand-operated grease gun. The high pressure from an air operated grease gun will damage the seal.
  • 4. Drag link and steering shaft: Use a lithium based grease with specification API NLGI Number 2.
  • 5. Kingpin, upper and lower: Use a lithium based grease with specification API NLGI Number 2.

    Note: Always grease a VOLVO front axle with the wheels on the ground.

    Note: To grease non-VOLVO axles, they are typically greased with the wheels on the ground. Consult with the axle manufacturer for the latest recommendation.

  • 6. Tie-rod: Use a lithium based grease with specification API NLGI Number 2.

    Note: VOLVO axles may use a greased-for-life tie-rod. No provisions for adding grease are available.

    7. Leaf Springs: Front and rear leaf spring eye pins, should be pressure lubricated with chassis grease. Vehicles equipped with multi-leaf springs should also have, the leaves lubricated with a spray gun or brush using a rust inhibiting oil.


CautionKeep grease and oil, off of rubber bushings. Failure to do so will result in component damage.


  • Note: If the vehicle is operated in sandy or dusty environments, the spring ends should be left dry. Dirt and grease can mix, resulting in a "sandpaper" action that may cause premature wear to the spring ends.

  • 8. Brake fluid and clutch reservoir: (if equipped) Check the fluid level in the reservoir. Add brake fluid if necessary. Use only DOT 4 brake fluid in the clutch release system. Mixing DOT 4 brake fluid with petroleum-based oil will cause seal damage which will cause leakage.
  • 9. Clutch bearing linkage: Use a lithium based grease with EP additives to specification API NLGI Number 2.

    Note: Inspection cover removal is necessary. Lubricate according to Eaton's lubrication document and reinstall the inspection cover. See for the latest heavy-duty clutch service information.

  • 10. U-Joints: Propeller shafts come fully grease and ready for vehicle operation. No grease should be added at assembly plant.

    Note: Propeller shaft that have plastic caps over the grease fittings have maintenance free U-joints and caps should not be removed.

  • 11. PTO/Hydraulic reservoir.
  • 12. Rear suspension (48k-70k suspension): When lubricating the spring pin bushing use a lithium based grease with specification API NLGI Number 2.
    Note: Newer versions may have a rubber bushing that does not need lubrication.
  • 13. Coolant level: Add coolant if necessary. Only use pre-mixed clean water and coolant in a 50/50 mix.
    Add only the same type coolant, that is: extended life or standard.
  • 14. Steering assist cylinder: Use a lithium based grease with EP additives to specification API NLGI Number 2 to grease both ball joints.
  • 15. Front oil lubricated wheel bearings (if applicable): Oil-filled hubs change oil at 160,000 km (1000,000 mi) or 12 months or when the hub is removed for repairs or other routine maintenance.
  • 16. Power steering fluid: Check the fluid in the reservoir with the dipstick. Add oil if necessary. Use ATF Dexron® III or better. Change fluid every 240,000 km (150,000 miles). Change filter every year.
    Use a lithium based grease with specification API NLGI Number 2.
  • 17. Engine oil and filter: For oil change schedule see service information in Function Group 1, Oil and Filters, VOLVO Components.
  • 18. Windshield washer fluid level:
  • 19. Automatic and manual transmission:

    Automatic transmission: Use Dexron® III or better automatic transmission fluid. See the manufacturer's operator manual for intervals and quantity.

    Manual transmission: Use a mineral or synthetic oil. Check oil level periodically. The level should be at the bottom of the inspection hole.

    I-Shift transmission: With the vehicle level, the oil should be between the maximum and minimum levels on the sight glass. Only use VOLVO approved oils. Refer to Function Group 1 for the list of the approved oils.

  • 20. Auxiliary axle(s): If equipped with auxiliary lift axles use a lithium based grease with specification API NLGI Number 2. Also, lubricate the brake, cams, slack adjuster and tie-rod ends.
  • 21. Rear axle: Check the oil level in the differential by removing the fill/level plug in the housing. The oil should be level with the bottom of the fill/level plug hole. Add oil if necessary.


CautionMost rear differentials have a large screw and nut protruding from the housing. The screw and nut hold the thrust plate shoe against the ring gear and are not to be confused with the fill/level plug.



  • Note: Refer to service information in Function Group 1, Oil and Filters, VOLVO Components for Oil Types.

  • 22. Fifth wheel: The fifth wheel and slider assemblies should always be re-lubricated after steam cleaning or at least every oil change.

    Note: A heavy coating of grease is recommended on the fifth wheel plate by using the grease gun or a putty knife by direct application to the top of the plate.

    Due to different manufacturers of 5th wheels and models, some 5th wheels may not have grease fittings. Use a lithium based grease with specification API NLGI Number 2 on tracks and moving components.
Posted By

Support for Air and Electrical Cables

Mar 25, 2018 9:34:19 AM

Air and electrical cables that are chaffed, cracked and rubbing or dragging on the deck plate are DOT violations which also become a CSA issue. Failing to secure brake hose/tubing against mechanical damage is a 4-point CSA violation. To avoid fines and the damage caused by cables and air lines dragging on the deck plate, one can opt for a combination air and electrical assembly with high-quality cable support.

Cable Support
Combination air and electrical assemblies are heavier than their coiled counterparts, requiring a thicker gauge, galvanized spring in the tender spring kit to accommodate for the additional weight, and a cable clamp hose holder to accommodate for the application. The following are tips to consider when choosing and installing a tender spring kit:

  • The tender spring(s) should be galvanized to avoid rust and deterioration of the integrity of the spring.
  • The tender spring(s) should be made of stiff, thick gauged wire. If the gauge is thin, the spring will wear out quickly allowing the hoses to hang lower, causing the potential for dragging along the deck plate.
  • The best way to support a combination assembly is to use two tender spring kits with heavy gauge springs. Using two tender spring kits offers better support and spring retention than one kit alone.
  • Do not over-tighten the cable clamp on the assembly. This helps avoid possible pinching of the lines, which can cause damage such as chaffing.
  • Attach the cable clamp to the assembly so that the nut is facing away from the back of the tractor to help avoid damage to the back of the cab.

Back of Cab Cable SupportCable Protection
Spiral wrap is used to neatly bundle combination assemblies together while protecting them from damage due to abrasion. An alternative to spiral wrap, are nylon wraps. Most, if not all, nylon wraps available on the market today use hook and loop to quickly open and close the wrap, which allows for easier maintenance and inspection than spiral wrap. When selecting nylon wraps, they should be weather-proof to keep the elements out, and UV coated to protect from the sun.

When not in use, the hoses on the back of a tractor need to be secured in a plug holder to avoid damage. When choosing a plug holder, non-metallic angled versions are recommended. Plug holders made from non-metallic materials are resistant to corrosion. Angled versions provide ease of use and help to prevent cable damage. Not only is the plug holder keeping the cables up and off the deck plate, but the angle at which the plug is connected to the plug holder puts less strain and pressure at the point where the plug and cable are connected. Too much strain will eventually cause damage to the cable.

Back of Cab Protection
As the tender spring pivots back and forth during the ride, and especially during abrupt stops, combination assemblies have the potential to bang up against the back of the cab and cause damage. Cable support, such as the X-TEND™ by Phillips, extends the tracker spring kit and cables out and away from the back of the cab. By avoiding contact between the back of the cab and the tracker spring kit(s) and cables, the back of the cab can remain free of scuffs, marring and any other type of damage.


  • To avoid fines and the damage caused by cables and air lines dragging on the deck plate, one can opt for a combination air and electrical assembly with high-quality cable support.
  • Combination air and electrical assemblies are heavier than their coiled counterparts, requiring a thicker gauge, galvanized spring in the tender spring kit to accommodate the additional weight.
  • When choosing a plug holder, non-metallic angled versions are recommended.
  • To help keep the back of the cab free of scuffs, marring and any other type of damage caused by swaying combination assemblies, Phillips recommends the X-TEND™.

Special Thanks to Phillips Industries for this Tech Tips

Posted By

Volvo Truck Tech Engine OverhaulIf you aren’t getting the fuel economy you’re used to or your engine brake performance has dropped, you may be surprised to learn why. That’s because these are two of the eight signs your truck’s engine needs an overhaul. Engine overhauls are usually scheduled every seven to 10 years or 800,000 to 1 million miles, and offer a cost-effective way to breathe new life into an older engine. 

If your truck is running rough, using excessive amounts of fuel or not accelerating like you’d expect, it may be time for an engine overhaul. Here are eight specific signs to watch for:

  1. Blue or black exhaust – One or more cylinders may be burning oil, or your fuel is running too rich or lean
  2. White exhaust – Coolant may be burning in one or more cylinders
  3. Engine knocking – Combustion timing may be off in one or more cylinders, or oil contamination may have occurred
  4. Reduced acceleration/hard start – Possible loss of cylinder compression
  5. Increased oil consumption – The engine may be leaking or burning oil; either situation isn’t good
  6. Low fuel economy – Loss of cylinder compression or over-fueled cycles
  7. Low oil pressure – Oil may not be reaching all the components
  8. Poor engine brake performance – Possible loss of cylinder compression

We have a great selection of Genuine Volvo Engine Overhaul Kits Available to purchase online.  

Posted By Chad Remp

Cold weather can wreak havoc on vehicle equipment causing safety hazards. Winter weather effects on air lines are especially important because this can impair a vehicle’s brake system performance. Not only is this a safety concern, but damaged air lines can also put a driver at risk of a CSA violation.

Effects of Cold Temperatures on Air Lines and Gladhands

For safety, and per SAE regulations, air lines need to be able to stretch and recoil properly. When air lines can stretch to a proper working length, force on the coupled gladhands is avoided. When they recoil properly they remain off the deck plate.

If temperatures are too cold and drop below a coiled air line’s working temperature, the air lines can lose their ability to stretch, as well as recoil. If air lines lose their ability to stretch, force is applied to the gladhands and can separate or even completely pull away, causing a loss in air pressure to the brake system. Inflexibility in air lines can also cause kinking, which can block air to the brake system as well as permanently damage air lines. If air lines are over-extended in extreme cold, they can fail to recoil back to their original state and sag. This creates the potential for damage due to dragging on the deck plate. In very extreme cases, tubing can crack and/or even come apart at the fitting.

Phillips Industries Brake Air LinesAir lines are also susceptible to damage when gladhands freeze together. If an air coil does not have grips, a driver may place too much force on the lead when pushing down or pulling up when trying to uncouple the gladhands. This can create kinking and even possible chaffing on the tubing. Other methods of disconnecting frozen gladhands include hitting the gladhands with something hard, such as a wrench. If the gladhand is missed and the air lines are accidentally struck, this can also cause damage to the air lines as well.  Buy Brake Gladhands here.

Preventing Air Line Damage A solution would be to use air lines that are made specifically for severe weather conditions, which are able to remain flexible in extreme cold. Another protective measure would be to select air lines with grips or easily add gladhand extension grips to your existing assemblies. Extension grips provide better leverage to help prevent applying too much force when coupling and uncoupling.

Air line damage in the winter can be prevented with a couple of easy changes. This winter stay safe and CSA violation free by using air lines made to perform in severe cold and harsh weather conditions.

Buy Brake Air Line Hoses here.


  • Nylon air coils lose their ability to stretch in severe weather conditions that are below their working temperature. This can lead to too much force on the gladhands causing a separation between the gladhand or complete pull-away.
  • Extreme temperatures cause a loss of recoil memory, and if coils are extended too far, the airlines will sag and drag on the deck plate.
  • To prevent damage, use air lines designed specifically for severe weather conditions as well as grips to offer better leverage when coupling and uncoupling.

Tech Tip courtesy of Phillips Industries

Posted By

Road Choice Shock Absorber

Shock absorbers stroke an average of 1,750 times every mile they’re driven. That’s 21 million times over the course of 12,000 miles. Since you can’t change the oil in a shock, it will eventually wear out. And worn shocks, left unchecked, can create excessive vibrations that cause driver fatigue, premature tire wear, and damage to batteries and running lights. Safeguard your suspension by having your shocks inspected every 12 months and replaced every 150,000 miles.

Shock absorbers are essential to your truck’s performance. Not only do they keep your tires connected to the road, but their vibration control protects other suspension components from premature wear, giving you a smoother ride. And worn shocks affect your stability, steering and ability to stop.


Here are six signs to watch for when evaluating your shock absorbers:

  • Breaks – Breaks can occur at the mounts, on the bushings or on the shock itself. They can be caused by incorrect shock application; incorrect ride height; sudden, jarring movements; overtightening of bushings or improper installation.
  • Cupping – Tire cupping, or uneven wear, is caused by the cyclic loading and unloading of the tire, either because it’s bouncing or because something is wobbling in the suspension. Typically, cupping caused by worn shocks leaves a repeating pattern on the tires. Once tires start to cup, they’ll continue to wear unevenly. So you’ll need to replace both the worn shocks and the damaged tires.
  • Leaks – While oil misting on the outside of a shock is normal, a leaking shock is a failure circumstance. Leaking shocks will show clear signs of oil seeping in streams from the upper seal down the shock body and may drip oil from the shock. They are caused by high temperature and pressure, or side loads that wear the seals on one side, causing them to leak.
  • Rattling – The sound of metal components rattling inside of a shock can indicate internal failure, even if no external damage or leaks are visible.
  • Sway – If your truck sways or leans on turns, or when you’re changing lanes, your shocks may be wearing out. This often happens as a course of normal operation.
  •  Vibration – If your truck has a soft, undulating ride or you feel excess vibration in the steering wheel, this can indicate a problem with your shocks. Bottoming and/or topping out frequently can damage a shock’s internal components, limiting their effectiveness.

Be sure to have your shocks professionally inspected every 12 months to ensure premium performance. And when it’s time for a replacement, contact for heavy-duty truck shock absorbers.  

Thank you to Road Choice Truck parts for this information.  You can purchase Road Choice Shock Absorbers here at  

Posted By

Air Suspension Maintenance Schedule

If you take care of a truck's air suspension system, it will take care of you. But maintaining a vehicle’s suspension system requires more than just checking its shock absorbers. To help you protect your ride and load, we’ve put together a chart that details recommended inspection and maintenance schedules for major suspension system components.

  Daily / At Installation 15,000 Miles 50,000 Miles 100,000 to 150,000 Miles ANNUALLY
Shock Absorbers   Visually inspect and replace if broken or leaking. Tighten loose mounting hardware Perform a heat test within a few minutes of operating the vehicle to check for internal failure. Internal failure cannot be detected visually. Replace at 100,000 miles (vocational) or 150,000 miles (on highway), or according to manufacturer’s guidelines. Have shocks professionally inspected to ensure premium performance.  
Fasteners and U-bolts Retorque once after first 1,000 to 3,000 loaded miles. Inspect for signs of wear deformity; replace if found. Check fastener and u-bolt torque, and adjust as necessary   Have fasteners professionally inspected for loose, damaged or cracked components.  
Bushings – Rubber Retorque once after first 1,000 to 3,000 loaded miles.       Inspect for signs of wear deformity or fatigue in transverse rod; replace if found.
Bushings – Metal Retorque once after first 1,000 to 3,000 loaded miles. Lubricate non-sealed bushings every 10,000 to 20,000 miles.     Inspect for signs of wear deformity or fatigue in transverse rod; replace if found.
Air System Suspension Drain air tank using the moisture ejector valve.   Visually inspect air springs for cracks, gouges, bulges, chafing and similar signs of wear. or 60 months or 60 months
Taper Leaf Suspension Inspect and note any sagging or slumping. Check and retorque u-bolts after 3,000 miles, and every three months afterward. Inspect leaf springs and u-bolts for signs of damage and wear. Retorque u-bolts   Check the following, inspect for wear and replace if damage is found: • Torque settings • Suspension bushings • Leaf springs • U-bolts • Axle alignment

Sources: American Transportation Associations Trucking Technology & Maintenance Council; Public Works magazine; Heavy Duty Truck Systems, Sixth Edition

Posted By

Wiper Blade Maintenance

Nov 7, 2017 2:05:14 PM

Volvo Truck Wiper Blade

It's easy to forget about maintenance for your wiper blades until it's too late.  Don't let a bad wiper blade risk your safety from poor visibility in a rainstorm or snow storm.  

Inspecting your Wiper Blade:

When fueling your truck, take a wet/moist paper towel and wipe down the rubber element on your wiper blade, after the winshield has been cleaned.  This will remove and loose dirt and grime that can lead to streaking, smearing and hazing of your windshield.

Inspecte your Wiper Blade:

  • Cracked rubber: Look for splits and slashes on the rubber.
  • Contaminated rubber: Result of road grime and chemicals adhering to the rubber element, causing a hazy film on the windshield.
  • Torn rubber: Rubber element has pulled away from its supporting structure, causing "slapping" noise to occur.
  • Park set rubber: The rubber element has lost its flexibility and no longer "flips" over when it begins the downstroke.
  • Abraded rubber: Worn, ragged edges on the element.
  • Damaged superstructure: Metal or plastic elements of the wiper arm, blade or refill is either bent or cracked.

Icy and Snowy Conditions

Do not use windshield wipers as ice scrapers. Use an ice scraper as much as possible when de-icing vehicles and allow the vehicle plenty of time to warm up with the defroster on "HIGH" to loosen as much ice and snow as possible. We sell winter wiper blades which are covered by a rubber boot to keep linkages free of ice and corrosives. Winter blades should never be used to de-ice the windshield.

What are some performance problems that may occur, indicating that my wiper blades may need replaced?

  • Smearing or streaking: Sections of windshield are missed as the blade passes over it.
  • Chattering: Blade moves irregularly across the windshield surface, making a chattering noise as it "hobbles" across the glass.
  • Hazing: Oil-like film spreads across the windshield, causing glare, usually a result of road grime contamination to the rubber.
  • Beading: Appears as a collection of water droplets on the windshield after the blade passes over.
  • Windlift: Blade "lifts" off the windshield and loses full or partial contact with the glass, usually happening at highway speeds.

If you need wiper blades, you can Buy Wiper Blades from

Posted By

Check out this video from Dayco on how to check the belts and tensioners for wear on your Volvo engine.



Shop online for belts and belt tensioners for your Volvo Engine

Posted By

Glandhand Maintenance

Oct 28, 2017 6:57:14 AM

Gladhand Maintenance TIPS

GladhandsGladhands are a critical part of the air brake system but often neglected.  Every time we drop and connect a trailer we are allowing possible contamination of the air brake system to moisture and debris.  So let's be careful to ensure our brakes can work properly by keeping our gladhands working properly.  

  • Watch for loss of tension when coupling and uncoupling gladhands. This is a sure sign they need to be replaced.  Often the complete gladhand may not need replacing, but you can replace the gladhand air seal.  These are a low-cost part that we recommend keeping in your truck in the event a seal is damaged.  They are easy to replace.  
  • Store gladhands in their stowage when dropping a trailer. This will keep air lines sealed, keeping moisture and debris out.
  • Gladhands should be replaced at the first substantial signs of damage/corrosion or when air lines are replaced.
  • Gladhand seals should be inspected regularly and replaced at least once a year based on usage.

Need to buy gladhand parts for your truck/trailer.  Buy truck and trailer Gladhand parts here.  


Most standard gladhand bodies are made from aluminum. In highly corrosive environments the followings should be noted:

  • Use anodized gladhands for added protection against corrosion.
  • Powder coating will chip away over time leaving the area exposed and vulnerable to corrosion-causing contaminants.
  • Corrosion is easily visible on the outside, but it can also build up on the interior cavity of the gladhand. If corrosion buildup begins to chip away, it will enter the air lines causing damage to the system.

Detent Plate & Rivets

The detent plate and connector plate work together to lock the gladhands together. After many cycles of coupling/uncoupling, the metal starts to shave off and create grooves in the detent plate. Corroded rivets on the detent plate will cause the plate to loosen, eventually breaking off making coupling impossible. To avoid damage:

  • Replace the gladhand when the detent plate shows signs of heavy wear or the plate is loose.
  • Replace the gladhand if there are substantial signs of corrosion on the rivets and detent plate.
  • Stainless steel offers the best corrosion protection.

Connector Plate

The connector plate works in conjunction with the detent plate to lock the gladhands together when coupled. The small dimple on the plate falls into place with the detent plate on the other gladhand to maintain a secure union. Over time this dimple wears down and the gladhand starts to lose the ability to seal properly when coupled. To maintain a proper seal:

  • Replace the gladhand when the dimple wears down.
  • Replace the gladhand if the connector plate is loose.
  • Use gladhands with stainless steel or powder coated stainless steel connector plates for anti-corrosion protection.

Gladhand Seals

Gladhand SealGladhand seals enable the coupled gladhands to seal tightly. However, seals eventually wear out over time due to the turning action of coupling/uncoupling. To prevent damaged and worn out gladhand seals:

  • Gladhand seals should be inspected regularly and replaced at least once a year based on usage.
  • Polyurethane seals last longer than standard materials because they hold up better against the elements.
  • Using filter screens in conjunction with gladhand seals helps to keep debris out of the air lines.
  • Gladhand seals with flaps help seal the gladhand shut when it is disconnected, keeping moisture and debris out of the air brake system. Always replace these seals when flaps are torn or damaged, and ALWAYS use a coned filter screen with this type of gladhand seal.
  • Always carry extra gladhand seals to replace leaking and/or damaged seals.

Overall Gladhand Care

  • Watch for loss of tension when coupling and uncoupling gladhands. This is a sure sign they need to be replaced.
  • Store gladhands in their stowage when dropping a trailer. This will keep the air lines sealed, keeping moisture and debris out.

Thank you to Phillips Industries for these great tech tips for gladhand maintenance.  

Posted By

Stemco Wheel BearingsTractors and trailers exposed to water submersion require special consideration to be given to the work procedures used in salvage and/or rebuild of the units. STEMCO does not recommend putting any unit into service that has not had a complete wheel end inspection and/or repair as described below. If wheel ends are not properly repaired, wheel end performance may degrade, up to and including possible catastrophic wheel end failure.


CAUTION While handling units which have been submerged in flood water, caution should be taken to protect technicians and the environment. With these units exposed to flood waters of unknown chemical composition, STEMCO recommends:

  • Technicians wear personal protective equipment (i.e. face, hand, protective body equipment, etc.) while exposed to contaminated wheel ends.
  • Consultation with local EPA officials regarding proper handling and disposal procedures for the contents of contaminated wheel ends. All hazardous waste from affected wheel ends should be disposed of per EPA requirements.

1. Identify Wheel End Type and Conditions

  • Is the wheel end equipped with Sentinel hub cap technology? Refer to #3 or #4 below.
  • Is the wheel end lubricated with oil or grease?
  • Does the wheel end contain a pre-adjusted bearing package? Some pre-adjusted wheel ends have limited rebuild capabilities. If you have this type of wheel end, contact the pre-adjusted wheel end manufacturer for rebuild instructions.  

    NOTE: Water, especially salt water, is corrosive to wheel ends and may degrade lubricant and metal components

2. General Steps

  • Inspect all wheel ends, not just a random sampling.
  • Clean the exterior of wheel end, washing off potential chemical or other contamination in a location with approved drainage and run-off collection capabilities.
  • In all cases where the lubricant is drained or removed from a wheel end, properly dispose of that lubricant. Disposal may differ depending on level and type of chemical contamination in the lubricant.

3. Sentinel Type Hub Cap
STEMCO offers hub caps with Sentinel technology (Sentinel hub cap and ESP plugs). These products provide water resistance to the internal hub cavity via a filter membrane. It is identifiable by the word "Sentinel" written on the non-removable red plastic cap or "ESP" on the blue removable plug. Wheel-ends equipped with Sentinel technology are likely to have little, if any, contamination inside. However, under these extreme conditions, all wheel ends should be inspected using the following procedure.

  • Remove the hub cap.
  • Oil Lubrication - Drain the wheel end lubricant into an approved receptacle.
    • Inspect lubricant for water contamination, dispose of lubricant properly.
    • If no lubricant contamination is found, install the hub cap with a new gasket and refill to the proper level. (Refer to TMC RP 631B)
  • Grease Lubrication - Follow the recommended annual inspection procedure for grease wheel ends (Refer to TMC RP 631B). This involves removing the outer bearing and inspecting the hub cavity for proper lubricant level and condition.
    • If no contaminants are present assure proper grease level and reassemble. (ref: TMC RP 631B)
    • If the lubricant is determined to be contaminated, follow the complete disassembly practice listed in #4.

4. Non Sentinel Type Hub Caps
Other hub caps may not provide the same level of water resistance and, when submerged, it is likely that contamination will enter the wheel end. NOTE: Tire inflation systems hub caps in many instances look like the Sentinel system. These do not contain Sentinel technology. Treat these as you would a non Sentinel hub cap as described below.

  • Remove the hub cap.
  • Drain wheel end lubricant (OIL or GREASE) into an approved receptacle. Dispose of properly.
  • Disassemble the wheel end.
  • Inspect the bearings and races for any signs of rust or discoloration. If there is any sign of rust or pitting, both the BEARING AND THE CUP HAVE TO BE REPLACED.  Shop here for replacement wheel bearings.

    NOTE: On aluminum hubs, a special procedure is used to install bearing cups. Refer to the hub manufacturer for their recommended procedure.

  • Inspect the axle and hub for any signs of rust or discoloration. If rust is present, clean the surface with emery cloth to remove rust.  

    NOTE: This is especially important on the axle bearing journals and seal shoulder and in the hub bearing and seal bores.

  • Clean all components to be reused in solvent and properly dry these parts.

    NOTE: Never use compressed air to spin the bearing as this can cause injury to the technician and/or damage to the bearing.

  • Lubricate bearing rollers and axle with the same type lubricant (OIL or GREASE) to be used in the hub.
  • Reassemble the wheel end using proper assembly procedures.
    • Refer to TMC's RP 618B for bearing adjustment. NOTE: Verify that wheel end bearing adjustment is 0.001" to 0.005" end play using a dial indicator.
    • Refer to TMC's RP 631B for lubricant fill procedures.
    • Installation instructions reference material is available at Or call STEMCO at 1-800-527-8492. Ask for technical support.

**Tech Tip Provided by STEMCO.  

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Wheeling Truck Center
23rd & Market St., PO Box 6808
Wheeling, WV 26003 USA

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